Proportion and Scale
Proportion refers to the size of objects in relation to other objects in your design and Scale is the relationship to a fixed object such as a house or pergola. When designing it is important to consider vertical, horizontal, and spatial relationships.
Order how one feature or area of your landscape design flows into the next. Depending on your preference you may choose an order that is balanced and symmetrical such as having to matching pots opposing each other at a front door, or you may select an order that is asymmetrical yet still balanced.
Repetition – Continuity – Flow
Through repetition of materials or plants, you create continuity throughout your landscape design that flows from different areas connecting each space. This can be accomplished a feature or pattern that can be repeated throughout the space. Failure to follow this principle may result in a design that isn’t cohesive and appears to look jumbled and not well planned out.
Unity is the principle of repetition and consistency throughout a design. Repetition is used to bring about continuity in your design by repeating design elements throughout the landscape. Continuity is used to create unity by fitting different elements of a landscape together to create a common unit or theme.
Balance is the distribution of the visual weight of objects, colors, textures, and space. In simpler terms, it’s all about creating a sense of equality, which, in turn, boosts visual attractiveness. There are two types of balance: symmetrical which is generally more formal and asymmetrical which tends to be more informal balance.
Contrast refers to placing opposing elements together to create visual interest. Colors, textures and shapes are all used to create contrast and interest in a design.
The purpose of a focal point is to draw the viewers’ attention. Fountains, Water Features, Statuary, and pottery are commonly used focal points. There is usually one main focal point but it possible to have multiple focal points in throughout different areas of the landscape.